Saturday , January 23 2021

What we can learn from a 252 million year old old exhaust




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Lava from Kilauea in Hawaii flows into the ocean. I shot this picture in October 2017. (Hawaii, USA) Marc Szeglat | Unsplash

Ca. 252 million years ago, when our continents were still melted together as Pangea, our planet experienced one unmatched loss of plant and animal life. While the mechanism for this & nbsp;"Great Permian Extinction"& Nbsp; (where & nbsp;70% of the earths died) & Nbsp;has been largely unknown, & nbsp;a new survey& nbsp; has revealed that the disappearance of & nbsp;96% of the life of the sea& Nbsp;may have been due to hot, oxygen-drained oceans. To reach this conclusion, the survey innovatively combined the fossil record, experiments with animal physiology and groundbreaking ocean models.

"Permeric eradication was the perfect storm of catastrophic events; carbon dioxide emissions and subsequent global warming wiped out 95% of all species on Earth," & Nbsp; say Veronica Padilla Vriesman, a PhD student in geology at the University of California, Davis is studying past changes in the marine environment using archaeological shells. "Earth became a massive dead zone in a geologically short period. Recovery after extinction took millions of years, forever to change the Earth's biota."

While sea and atmospheric conditions below periods today resembled a series of intense volcanic eruptions in Siberia spewed large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide levels were almost 12 times greater than & nbsp; they are & nbsp;today, so that the earth is enclosed in a thick heat-absorbing rug. The authors found that the permeric oceans heated by & nbsp; 20 ° C (11 ° C)& Nbsp; and lost & nbsp; up to 80% of the oxygen they contained (When sea temperatures rise, they lose their ability to hold oxygen). Additionally & nbsp;Waters closest to the seabed were completely devoid of oxygen.

In order to understand the effect of these stressful conditions on the animals living in the oceans towards the end of the permeation period, authors & nbsp; laboratory tests that tested the responses from 61 modern marine animals to changes in temperature and oxygen levels. They specifically chose animals that developed under similar conditions as extinct species, such as coral, shellfish and sharks.

The authors found that the hot, oxygenated water was the primary source of extinction in the permeric oceans. As sea temperatures rise, many metabolites of aquatic animals will have accelerated. & Nbsp; The oxygen-depleted oceans were probably unable to meet the physiological needs of permanent plants and animals, which ultimately suffocated them. While carbon dioxide emissions from Siberian volcanoes can be dissolved in seawater & nbsp;which makes the oceans get worse& Nbsp; and & nbsp;contributed to the loss of some species, & nbsp; Heating and oxygen loss is considered the strongest driving force for this massive die-off.

In addition, species in the tropics do not suffer as much as species found in colder waters near the poles. This is probably because ocean life near equator evolved into survival in hot tropical waters.

"Since tropical organisms metabolism was already adapted to relatively hot, lower oxygen ratios, they could move away from the tropics and find the same conditions elsewhere, " said co-author Dr. Curtis Deutsch, & Nbsp; "But if an organism was adapted to a cold, bad environment, these conditions ceased to exist in the low seas."

In this May 9, 2016 photo, seafood washed off in the country carpet coast of Cucao, on Chiloe Island, Chile. The government has declared an emergency along Chile's south and in Chiloe, as it deals with the country's worst ever "red water", which can be fatal to fish and other marine forms with a toxin that lags the central nervous system. Consumption of seafood from red-watered areas can also poison people. (AP Photo / Esteban Felix)ASSOCIATED PRESSE

This ocean-wide extinction event that occurred 252 million years ago can provide an insight into the consequences of modern human-driven changes in Earth's climate and oceans. & Nbsp;Currently& nbsp; in Anthropocenes (Human Epok), carbon dioxide levels are higher than they have been for 15 million years and the planet is the warmest it has been for 120,000 years. Furthermore & nbsp;whose greenhouse gas emissions continue to their current rateso sea water near the surface could be 20% as hot as they were at the end of the permeous period of 2100 (and up to 50% so hot& nbsp; by year 2300).

According to Padilla Vriesman, & nbsp; "We can look at the leadership of the end-Permian extinction as an analog of what we see on Earth today. People – instead of volcanoes – trigger a global event with features that alarmingly resemble those who leading up to the end-permal. "

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Lava from Kilauea in Hawaii flows into the ocean. I shot this picture in October 2017. (Hawaii, USA) Marc Szeglat | Unsplash

Ca. 252 million years ago, when continents were still merged together as Pangea, our planet experienced one unmatched loss of plant and animal life. While the mechanism of this "Great Permian Extinction" (where 70% of the earths died) has largely been unknown, a new study has revealed the disappearance of 96% of the sea's life may have been due to hot, oxygen-drained oceans. To reach this conclusion, the survey innovatively combined the fossil record, experiments with animal physiology and groundbreaking ocean models.

"Permian extinction was the perfect storm of catastrophic events; carbon dioxide emissions and subsequent global warming wiped out 95% of all species on Earth," said Veronica Padilla Vriesman, Ph.D. student in geology at the University of California, Davis studying previous changes in the marine environment using archaeological shells. "Earth became a massive dead zone in a geologically short period. Recovery after extinction took millions of years to change the Earth's biota forever."

While ocean and atmospheric conditions in the Permian Period resembled today, a series of intense volcanic eruptions in Siberia spilled large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide levels were almost 12 times greater than they are today, so that the earth is enclosed in a thick heat-absorbing rug. The authors found that the permeric oceans heated at 11 ° C and lost up to 80% of the oxygen they contained (when sea temperatures rise, they lose their ability to hold oxygen). other than that Waters closest to the seabed were completely devoid of oxygen.

To understand the effect of these stressful conditions on the animals living in the oceans towards the end of the permeation period, the authors referred laboratory investigations which tested the responses from 61 modern marine animals to changes in temperature and oxygen levels. They specifically chose animals that developed under similar conditions as extinct species, such as coral, shellfish and sharks.

The authors found that the hot, oxygen-depleted water was the primary source of extinction in the permalan oceans. As sea temperatures have risen, many marine animal metabolism will accelerate. However, the oxygen-depleted oceans were probably unable to meet the physiological needs of pearls and animals that ultimately suffocated them. While carbon dioxide emissions from Siberian volcanoes can be dissolved in seawater, causing the oceans to become acidier and contributed to the loss of some species, heating and oxygen are regarded as the strongest drivers for this massive rejection.

In addition, species in the tropics do not suffer as much as species found in colder waters near the poles. This is probably because ocean life near equator evolved into survival in hot tropical waters.

"Because tropical organisms' metabolism was already adapted to relatively hot, lower oxygen ratios, they could move away from the tropics and find the same conditions somewhere else, "said co-author Dr. Curtis Deutsch." But if an organism was adapted to a cold, oxygen-rich environment, these conditions ceased to exist in the low seas. "

In this May 9, 2016 photo, seafood washed off in the country carpet coast of Cucao, on Chiloe Island, Chile. The government has declared an emergency along Chile's south and in Chiloe, as it deals with the country's worst ever "red tide", which can be fatal to fish and other marine forms with a toxin that lambs the central nervous system. Consumption of seafood from red-watered areas can also poison people. (AP Photo / Esteban Felix)ASSOCIATED PRESSE

This ocean-wide extinction event that occurred 252 million years ago can provide an insight into the consequences of modern human-driven changes in the Earth's climate and oceans. Currently in Anthropocene (Human Epoxy), carbon dioxide levels are higher than they have been for 15 million years, and the planet is the warmest it has been for 120,000 years. If the greenhouse gas emissions continue at their current speed, seawater close to the surface can be 20% as hot as they were at the end of the permissible period in 2100 (and up to 50% so hot in the year 2300).

According to Padilla Vriesman, "We can look at the leading-Permian extinction as an analogue to what we see on Earth today. People – rather than volcanoes – trigger a global event with features that alarmingly resemble the leaders until the end-permal. "


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