According to the latest research, between 10 and 15 percent of the breast cancer cases are inherited from the gene that makes a person susceptible to the disease.
"In Mexico, this disease is classified as a public health problem due to its occurrence, the highest among all cancers and its mortality and impact on patients' families," said Felipe Vaca Paniagua, a researcher at the Faculty of Higher Studies (FES) Iztacala of UNAM . The cost of treatment and admission is 200,000 to 300,000 pesos per day. Case of the year
Every year, there are almost 20 thousand new cases, and of these, in just over two thousand, a genetic variant was discovered. The problem is growing because in some families carriers of variants predispose to hereditary family cancer. Thereafter, in a family of up to five or six women, breast, ovarian or endometrial cancer may occur; in the case of males, pancreas, skin (melanoma) or chest.
In addition, some within the two thousand cases where genetic variant was discovered, have some of two cancers such as breast and ovaries (synchronous tumors) or a tumor in each breast (bilateral disease).
In a pilot study at INCan, Vaca Paniagua and colleagues analyzed the prevalence of genetic variants in patients with hereditary family healing and breast cancer.
"We studied the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and in about 10 percent of the patients we found some changes. Generally, when breast cancer or some other type of cancer is due to a genetic variant, the clinical course is more aggressive than when due to other risk factors," researcher.
Following that study, the researchers designed a method of analysis to study an expanded panel of 143 genes associated with more than 80 hereditary oncogenic diseases, including breast cancer.
From blood samples taken to 327 patients from Mexico City and the states of Mexico, Morelos, Guerrero and Colima, with the new method, they analyzed the DNA in a massive sequencing team from the National Health Laboratory in Iztacala FES.
"We only discovered a pathogenic variant in 16 percent of patients, meaning that hereditary breast cancer is quite heterogeneous," says Vaca Paniagua.
The university student, who heads a team describing new genes present in this type of cancer, stated that his interest was studying the genetic determinants of susceptibility in Mexican patients. A genetic determinant is a variant or mutation in a gene that affects its function. In this case, it determines the receipt of breast cancer.
According to the Ministry of Health's National Center for Gender and Reproductive Health, the 291 thousand 637 Mexican women who died in 2015 died 13.9 percent of cancer. Of these deaths, 15.4 percent were due to breast cancer, 9.9 percent of the cervix and 5.9 percent due to ovarian cancer.