Science has chosen single cell re-activity analyzes over time as the year's progress for 2018, recognizing a number of methods that together allow researchers to determine, on an individual cell level, which genes they activate and deactivate as an early embryo develops.
"These technologies generate some of the most extraordinary films ever made and show how a single cell becomes the intricate tissue and organs of a mature animal," said Tim Appenzeller, a science news editor. The process consists in isolating whole cells of organisms, sequencing their genomic contents in the so-called RNA-Seq in a cell and labeling the early cells and their descendants to track how they are divided into several types in development.
Scientists postulate that single-cell RNA-Seq could transform the landscape for basic biology and medical research for the next ten years. "The ability to isolate thousands of individual cells and sequence the genetic material of each yields a snapshot of the RNA produced in each cell at the precise moment. As the RNA sequences are specific to the genes that produced them , scientists can immediately identify the genes that are active, these active genes define what a cell does, "says the internal editor of science Elizabeth Pennisi.
"Only in 2018 did the studies begin how a flat worm, a fish, a seed and other organisms begin to form organs and appendages." All over the world, there are groups that use these techniques to study how human cells mature through life. how tissue regenerates and how the cells change under diseases such as cancer, "Pennisi says.
As a powerful complement to the single cell RNA sequence, researchers have introduced molecular "trackers" (using fluorescent labels or the gene editing method known as CRISPR) into the first embryonic cells to mark them and track how they end up being different. cell lines in later stages of development. "By combining these techniques with single cell RNA sequencing, researchers can monitor the behavior of individual cells and see how they fit into the architecture of the body's implementation. Others use similar techniques to track what happens in organs. limbs or other tissues, and how these processes can go wrong, resulting in malformations or diseases, "Pennisi adds. (Source: AAAS)