Diabetes is a serious lifetime disease that someone can suffer from.
It is estimated that 422 million people They live with diabetes around the world, four times more than 40 years ago, according to World Health Organization (WHO).
Diabetes occurs when the body can not process all sugar or glucose in the blood.
Glucose is not bad, it is fueled by all the cells in the body.
Some tissues, in order to use this glucose, need insulin effect, which is a hormone produced by the pancreas that facilitates glucose into the cell, thereby converting glucose into energy.
Complications of diabetes can lead to myocardial infarction, stroke, blindness, renal failure and amputation of the lower extremities.
Despite the risks, many who have diabetes do not know that. But lifestyle changes can prevent it in many cases.
On the World Diabetes Day, held November 14, at BBC Mundo, we investigate what is The most common question that people ask Google about diabetes and We asked three specialists.
1) What are the first symptoms of diabetes? ¿and in children?
"Usually, the doctor warns the patient that he has type 2 diabetes based on the results of laboratory tests that measure blood glucose levels. Most patients with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Most commonly in type 1 diabetes patients, when levels remain very high for a long time .
It is possible that fatigue, thirst, hunger, excess urination, blurred vision and weight loss can be developed. "- Victor Montori, endocrinologist of diabetes at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.
"In children, type of diabetes is often type 1. Symptoms are usually more intense and present in less time: intense thirst, weight loss, frequent urination, fatigue, do not play as they did in a common sense, drowsiness." – José Agustín Mesa Pérez, Endocrinologist and President of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
"Over the last decades, we have had an alarming increase in type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, associated with higher obesity and sedentary lifestyle habits." – Dr Fabiana Vazquez, member of the Argentine Diabetes Society.
2) When is blood sugar levels dangerous?
"True, the normal level of blood sugar is 70-110 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl)." After meals, these values increase, but insulin ensures that they return quickly to the normal range (usually 2 hours. Values greater than 180 mg / dL lasted for more than 2 hours are toxic to cells, and repeated repeatedly can cause permanent damage on them, especially in the kidneys, eyes, heart and nerves of the legs. "
"In the long run, the entire organism is affected if the values are high, so that people with diabetes should have their blood sugar between 70 and 180 mg / dl for most of the day." – Dr Fabiana Vazquez, member of the Argentine Diabetes Society.
"The type 2 diabetes patient can start dehydrating when the sugar level exceeds 200 mg / dL, but people without any other problem can maintain high levels of sugar without danger, when the level is very high, for example over 300 mg / dL, the risk is greater and requires attention. "- Victor Montori, endocrinologist of diabetes at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.
"You must also talk about the values, people who have diabetes, even those who have some complications should avoid glucose levels below 70 mg / dl in both fast and after eating." – José Agustín Mesa Pérez, Endocrinologist and President of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
3) What are the differences in type 1 and 2 diabetes?
"In the classification of diabetes, there are four types, but in practice it is expressed as type 1 or 2. Type 1 usually occurs in adolescents under 30, thin and who do not have a hereditary history of diabetes."
"Usually, it does with acute symptoms." Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adults over 40 years, very related to obesity or obesity, with a waist circumference measured at 80 cm above women in women and 90 cm in men, it is also associated with other risk factors, such as high triglycerides and hypertension and fat liver. "- José Agustín Mesa Pérez, Endocrinologist and President of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
"In type 1 diabetes, the correct use of insulin (a laborious and expensive job) gives these patients the opportunity for life without limitations." Patients with type 2 diabetes, which are milder, abnormalities can be controlled well with diet, exercise, stress management and medications (pills, injections, insulin). "- Victor Montori, endocrinologist of diabetes at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.
4) Does diabetes have a cure? Could it be avoided?
"Diabetes can not be cured, but well controlled, the person can live a normal life, there is no way to know who should have diabetes 1, or how to avoid it, while type 2 diabetes has very clear trigger and maintains a weight sufficient healthy and balanced diet and regular exercise can prevent or delay the appearance of those with genetic predisposition. "- Dr Fabiana Vazquez, member of the Argentine Diabetes Society.
"Pancreatic transplantation is an aggressive alternative that, in many cases, resolves the lack of insulin in type 1 diabetes." – Victor Montori, endocrinologist of diabetes at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.
"There is no cure and you must be very careful about liars and charlatanes who promise it, but it is a perfectly controllable chronic disease, the earlier diagnosed and intensively worked to reduce the risk factors, avoiding other complications." –José Agustín Mesa Pérez, Endocrinologist and President of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
5) Which foods cause diabetes?
"No, there is no food that can develop diabetes itself, the confusion comes because the prehistoric man needed to save energy to live and he achieved it through insulin-saving systems."
"But over time and the high availability of food began to have problems: the consumption of surplus energy that began to come with industrial development and was no longer natural food but preserved foods for which digestion is not A takeover of calories in fatty tissue, in the liver and in other structures began to rise, and the conclusion was the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, etc. "José Agustín Mesa Pérez, Endocrinologist and President of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
"The adequate consumption of vegetables (both raw and cooked and of different colors) and fruits can help balance the diet and incorporate natural antioxidants that help prevent diabetes."
"Dietary rich in fat, especially if they are of animal origin, as well as simple carbohydrates (sugars) and manufactured foods have been shown to be associated with a greater opportunity to develop type 2 diabetes. The excess of fast food and snacks is one of the reasons for it the higher the rate at which we detect type 2 diabetes in children. " Dr Fabiana Vazquez, member of the Argentine Diabetes Society.
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