If you have not used the year in a bunker, under the most creepy desert on Earth, you have heard of intermittent fast, the queen of unemployment benefits this year. the apps organizing you to eat in the perfect moment has grown like mushrooms in 2018, the number of searches of the term on Google doubled in 2017 (it's lasted ten past years) and even the prestigious magazine Science He has been aware of the phenomenon. The publication has gathered the scientific basis that supports it in a room number on diet and health, and yes it impresses what could be achieved with it … if it eventually turns out that it works in humans.
Science knows that the benefits of eating a little are extraordinary in animals. Laboratory tests indicate that A snap of between 15% and 40% of calories prevents diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and even some types of cancer. It also cuts up to extend the life of the mouse up to 50%. However, the effects of this reduction have not yet been proven in humans. And let's be honest, spending a third of the food we are used to does not seem a realistic purpose.
This is where intermittent fast comes in play with the promise of realizing the benefits of starving without sacrificing a single calorie content … when you eat of course. All that has to be done, according to the regime's defenders, is to accept interspersed periods of deprivation between meals or to concentrate all the day's intake in an eight hour fork. And how do you eat?
There are two versions (one with more risks than another)
One of them, the intermittent fast 5: 2, imposes no calorie limitation over five days a week. The counterpart is that there is Stop eating solids completely or limit the calories to 25% of the usual, over the two remaining days. Studies in mice suggest that this demanding diet protects against obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and even neurodegeneration. Then there is 18: 6, which promotes that all meals of the day are consumed for a period of six hours and that the eighteen remaining are fasted (the radical versions of this plan limit the time for indulgence to 4 hours and the most salmon, 12 hours).
The biological mechanisms activated with intermittent solids are still a scientific mystery
"They are very different diets," explains Professor of Nutrition at Navarra University and President of the International Union of Nutrition Sciences Alfredo Martínez. "The first is a ketogenic diet," he adds. That is it It promotes ketosis, a condition where the body uses fat as an energy source for the muscles and brain. "It has the advantage that you lose, but it is necessary to do it under medical supervision to detect possible changes or metabolic imbalances," he warns.
The 16: 8 diet, on the other hand, has a lower risk of side effects and builds a long tradition in versions like Ramadan, according to Martínez. A study of the University of Iran in Public health nutrition found it Muslims who stop eating during the month of the month marked by tradition lose an average of 1.2 kilograms. The essence of this diet is the subject of chronon nutrition, the science that studies the relationship between eating and biological rhythms.
Identify those moments where organisms' bikes use Viandas better, can make the difference. It is apparent from a clinical trial that saw the light in summer in the magazine Nutrition and healthy aging, A weight loss was recorded 2.6 kilograms of average between those who made all their meals between kl. 10.00 and 18.00 for 12 weeks. What researchers do not know why this happens.
You lose yourself, but for what price?
"The studies that have been done in people on intermittent fasting can be counted with your fingers on your hands and mine, so to talk about the mechanisms behind it is impossible ", says the coordinator of IRB Barcelona Antonio Zorzano's molecular program: "The general observations are clear, these diets reduce the body weight and surely they make changes in adipose tissue, that is, they are very likely to work."
But the expert does not hide his fear of certain side effects, such as loss of muscle mass, which can cause severe physical deterioration in old age. "I have still not seen this reflected in the surveys, but we must be very careful before we tell the population that they can make these diets," he says. Everyone must be kept under medical supervision and we should not forget that Muslims who follow the guidelines for Ramadan back to lose weight for weeks after celebration, which brings the biggest problem of intermittent fasting to light: "Can we live with 1,200 calories a day?", as so many celebrities claim, Zorzano asks.
Self-control diet wins at a landslide
"It is practical to study these diets now because we have a serious problem with obesity and food consumption," reflects the professor of public health at Navarra University Miguel Ángel Martínez-González: "You need to reduce calories but it is difficult while society is continuing obese, "he reflects. In this line, Predimed-Plus, whose former project, Predimed, The biggest survey of Mediterranean food to date, He was a researcher Martínez-González, and it has become the most important nutritional project in Spain.
Its desire is to reduce the individual's calorie contribution by up to 30% (600 kilocalories) based on reduce the consumption of foods such as meat and sausages, sugars, white bread, packaged fruit juices and sugary beverages. "But we see them and we want people to comply," acknowledges the researcher.
This problem has inspired a whole new research line that attempts to imitate the benefits of fasting without undergoing an experience that is incompatible with the rhythm of modern life. It involves gradually reducing the calories up to 30% for only five consecutive days a month and for three months. During this period, the diet should be 50% vegetable fat, 40% protein and 10% carbohydrates (when a standard nutritional plan consists of 30% fat, 15% protein and 55% carbohydrates), according to a review of solid methods published in Science. Of course, how to organize these nutrients gives many views.
The guerrilla of this method is the director of the Institute of Longevity from the University of Southern California, Valter Longo, who already markets it under the name of ProLon. his kit Survival during the fast assumes the advantage of not cooking: it consists of vegetable soup, infusions, energy bars, dietary supplements and snacks based on nuts, all packed for their customers. "But it can not be proven science, there is much to investigate," says Martínez-González.
"Many of the findings from the studies are purely speculative," and one can also forget about long-term effects that have not been demonstrated, or with fasting, causing anemia or having a breakdown while driving. .. "We have created a problem that is obesity, and the solution is not going to be extreme radicalism," resolves the professor. Needless to say, he recommends the Mediterranean diet. And his next advice is not that far from what new fashion shapes promote: "You have to pronounce two words that are never said because they do not interest the industry:" eat less "". Their is self-control diet.
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