Almost half of all adults in the US in 2016 – 48% or 121.5 million – have some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to the annual heart disease and stroke from the American Heart Association (AHA).
This reported incidence of CVD represents a significant increase over previous years. It was primarily driven by an increase in the number of people classified as high blood pressure after the 2017 guidelines redefined hypertension as 130/80 mm Hg instead of the previous 140/90 mm Hg threshold.
When adults with only a diagnosis of hypertension are excluded, the incidence of CVD decreases from 48% to 9%.
"It may look like good news, but 9% of the American adult population represents more than 24.3 million Americans with cardiovascular disease, heart failure or stroke," said Mariell Jessup, MD, AHA's chief science and medical officer in a statement.
AHA & # 39; s Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2019 update was released online January 31 in Circulation.
"We do so much work in our update every year because we believe in the transforming power to continuously and systematically collect, analyze and interpret these important data," commented Jessup. "They hold us accountable and help us map our progress and decide whether and how to adapt our efforts.
"By quantifying the impact of our collective work, we learn how to better invest our resources when we pursue longer and healthier lives for all," she added.
Progress and challenges
CVD remains the leading cause of death in the United States and around the world. In 2016, CVD was responsible for 840,678 deaths in the United States (about one in three deaths) rising from 836,546 in 2015, but worldwide CVD deaths were lower in 2016 (17, 6 million) Than it was in 2015 (17.9 million).
The average annual cost (direct and indirect) of the CVD and stroke in the US was estimated at $ 351.2 billion. USD in 2014/15. From 2015 to 2035, these costs are expected to increase slightly for middle-aged adults and greatly for older adults.
In 2016, strokes accounted for about one of the 19 deaths in the United States. On average, in 2016, some of the strokes died every three minutes and 42 seconds, the report notes. When assessed separately from other CVDs, stroke is among all the causes of death in the United States and kills about 142,000 people a year.
Among the many statistics in the 473-page report indicates some progress, and others suggest options for improvement. Smoking and tobacco use is a bright spot; the report shows that:
In 2015/16, 94% of adolescents from 12 to 19 years of age were non-smokers, an increase of almost 20 percentage points from the turn of the millennium (76% in 1999/2000).
The proportion of adolescents aged 12 to 17 who reported smoking in the previous month has fallen by two-thirds in 14 years (from 13% in 2002 to 3.4% in 2016).
79% of adults were non-smokers in 2015/16, up from 73% in 1999/2000. In the previous 50 years, the number of adults who fell from 51.0% in 1965 to 16.7% in 2015 decreased for men and 34.0% to 13.6% for women (age-adjusted rates), respectively.
More Americans also become more physically active, with 53.5% of students participating in muscle enhancing activities of 3 or more days per week in 2015, up from 47.8% in 1991. The prevalence of physical inactivity among adults is decreased by more than one Third, from 40.2% in 2005 to 26.9% in 2016.
However, the AHA notes that the incidence of obesity remains high in the United States, with 39.6% of adults and 18.5% of adolescents meeting obesity criteria in 2015 and 7.7% of adults and 5.6% of adults. young people who meet the criteria for severe obesity.
"There are no quick fixes to help more Americans achieve healthy weight," Jessup said. "The changes in culture, environments and policies that can improve our choice of food and physical activity can take many years to complete, and the status quo can be resilient to change. We must be firm in pursuing these changes to make communities more Safe, more walkable, and more bike-friendly, we must also continue to make healthy foods and beverages more accessible, affordable, and prominent in corner shops, vending machines, schools, cafeterias at work and other public places. "
This year's update includes a new chapter on the importance of sleep in relation to cardiovascular and general health. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society recommend that adults get at least 7 hours of sleep at night to promote optimal health. However, a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revealed that only about 65% of the population in the United States achieve this goal on a regular basis.
Circulation. Published on January 31, 2019. Full text